Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

powder, suitable for plant cell culture

MS Basal Medium
MDL number:



Quality Level


cell culture | plant: suitable

Featured Industry


storage temp.


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General description

Murashige and Skoog medium is a widely used plant tissue culture growth medium. M&S Basal Medium contains macronutrients that include high levels of nitrate and organic additives such as agar, sugars, vitamins and growth regulators. Important growth regulators frequently added to M&S include IAA (auxin/morphogen) and the Kinetin (cytokinin/cell division promoter).


Murashige and Skoog medium has been used in plant tissue culture medium for plant transformation study.

Formula variant

With the macro- and micronutrients, and vitamins as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962).

Media Formulation


Formulated to contain 4.4 grams of powder per liter of medium.

Preparation Note

Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient mixtures and vitamin mixtures. Murashige and Skoog medium (M5519) contains the micronutrients and vitamins of the original classic formulation. It can be supplemented with sucrose, agar, auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.


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Hazard Statements


UN 1477 5.1 / PGII

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

  1. What is the formulation of Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog (MS) Basal Medium?

    It is media containing the macro- and micronutrients, and vitamins.

  2. What is the difference between Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog (MS) Basal Medium and M5524, Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture?

    Product M5519 is the complete medium whereas M5524 is just the basal salt medium.

  3. Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium, is on back order. Can you suggest an alternate?

    When M5519 is on backorder, you can purchase Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture (Product No. M5524) and Murashige and Skoog Vitamin Powder (Product No. M7150). You will use 4.3 g/L of M5524 (rather than 4.4 g/L of M5519) and 1 mL/L of M7150. When combined, the salt and organic content is the same as Product No. M5519.

  4. Product M5519, Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium, has precipitates; will that affect the growth?

    Precipitates are known to occur, with time, in plant tissue culture media.  The precipitates have been analyzed.  They are composed of small pale yellow-white particles.  Analysis of precipitates indicated a predominance of iron, phosphate, and zinc.  The probable cause of the precipitates is the inevitable oxidation of ferrous ions to ferric ions and the presence of unchelated ferric ions.  When the solubility of ferric phosphate is exceeded precipitation occurs.  There are no reports of detrimental effects on growth and development in plant tissue culture due to the precipitates.

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Amr R A Kataya et al.
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An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertional mutant was identified and characterized for enhanced tolerance to the singlet-oxygen-generating herbicide atrazine in comparison to wild-type. This enhanced atrazine tolerance mutant was shown to be affected in the promoter structure and in the regulation...

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