Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

powder, suitable for plant cell culture, with Gamborg′s vitamins

Murashige and Skoog (Gamborg Modified) Basal Media, MS Basal Medium
MDL number:

Quality Level




cell culture | plant: suitable

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Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium has been used:
  • to germinate the seeds for seedling growth and germination studies
  • in the suspension culture of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia for transformation
  • in the root culture of hairy clone A. artemisiifolia T4

Formula variant

With the macro- and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962) and the vitamins as described by Gamborg, et al. (1968).

Media Formulation


Formulated to contain 4.4 grams of powder per liter of medium.

Preparation Note

Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient, micronutrient and vitamin mixtures.
Murashige and Skoog medium (M0404) contains the macro- and micronutrients of M&S basal medium as described by Gamborg, et al (1968). It can be supplemented with organics and with auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.


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Hazard Statements


Eye Irrit. 2 - Ox. Sol. 3


5.1B - Oxidizing hazardous materials

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Overexpression of 20-oxidase confers a gibberellin-overproduction phenotype in Arabidopsis
Huang S, et al.
Plant Physiology, 118(3), 773-781 (1998)
Mark Lemos et al.
Journal of experimental botany, 67(5), 1557-1566 (2016-01-07)
The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and...
Statistical analysis of elicitation strategies for thiarubrine A production in hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Bhagwath SG and Hjortso MA
Journal of Biotechnology, 80(2), 159-167 (2000)
John E McLaughlin et al.
PloS one, 10(6), e0130204-e0130204 (2015-06-10)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard...
Brenden Hurley et al.
PloS one, 9(12), e114921-e114921 (2014-12-17)
Pseudomonas syringae subverts plant immune signalling through injection of type III secreted effectors (T3SE) into host cells. The T3SE HopF2 can disable Arabidopsis immunity through Its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. Proteomic analysis of HopF2 interacting proteins identified a protein complex containing ATPases...

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