Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

powder, suitable for plant cell culture, with Gamborg′s vitamins

Murashige and Skoog (Gamborg Modified) Basal Media, MS Basal Medium
MDL number:

Quality Level




cell culture | plant: suitable

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Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium has been used:
  • to germinate the seeds for seedling growth and germination studies
  • in the suspension culture of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia for transformation
  • in the root culture of hairy clone A. artemisiifolia T4

Formula variant

With the macro- and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962) and the vitamins as described by Gamborg, et al. (1968).

Media Formulation


Formulated to contain 4.4 grams of powder per liter of medium.

Preparation Note

Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient, micronutrient and vitamin mixtures.
Murashige and Skoog medium (M0404) contains the macro- and micronutrients of M&S basal medium as described by Gamborg, et al (1968). It can be supplemented with organics and with auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.


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Hazard Statements


UN 1477 5.1 / PGII

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Identification of a Golgi-localised GRIP domain protein from Arabidopsis thaliana
Gilson PR, et al.
Planta, 219(6), 1050-1056 (2004)
Overexpression of 20-oxidase confers a gibberellin-overproduction phenotype in Arabidopsis
Huang S, et al.
Plant Physiology, 118(3), 773-781 (1998)
Mark Lemos et al.
Journal of experimental botany, 67(5), 1557-1566 (2016-01-07)
The exquisite harmony between hormones and their corresponding signaling pathways is central to prioritizing plant responses to simultaneous and/or successive environmental trepidations. The crosstalk between jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) is an established effective mechanism that optimizes and...
Kenichi Tsuda et al.
PLoS genetics, 5(12), e1000772-e1000772 (2009-12-17)
Two modes of plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens, Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), are triggered by recognition of pathogen effectors and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), respectively. Although the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling...
Statistical analysis of elicitation strategies for thiarubrine A production in hairy root cultures of Ambrosia artemisiifolia
Bhagwath SG and Hjortso MA
Journal of Biotechnology, 80(2), 159-167 (2000)

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