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T6674

Sigma-Aldrich

Tumor Necrosis Factor-α human

TNF-α, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, powder, suitable for cell culture

Synonym(s):
TNF-α, hTNF-α
CAS Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.77

Quality Level

biological source

human

recombinant

expressed in E. coli

assay

≥97% (SDS-PAGE)

form

powder

potency

0.02-0.3 ng/mL ED50/EC50

quality

endotoxin tested

mol wt

~17.4 kDa

packaging

pkg of 5x10 μg
pkg of 10 μg

storage condition

avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles

technique(s)

cell culture | mammalian: suitable

impurities

<1 EU/μg

UniProt accession no.

storage temp.

−20°C

Gene Information

human ... TNF(7124)

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Application

TNF-α include stimulating growth of human fibroblasts and other cell lines activating polymorphonuclear neutrophils and osteoclasts and inducing interleukin-1, prostaglandin E2, and collagenase production.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNFα) human has been used:
  • to analyze the effects of cytokine TNFα-stressed human neuronal and glial (HNG) cells
  • to investigate the molecular mechanisms of TNFα-mediated prolyl-4 hydroxylase α1 (P4Hα1) suppression
  • to induce death-receptor-mediated apoptosis in HeLa cells.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Tumore necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), also known as cachectin, is expressed as a 26 kDa membrane bound protein and is then cleaved by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) to release the soluble 17 kDa monomer, which forms homotrimers in circulation. TNF-α plays roles in antitumor activity, immune modulation, inflammation, anorexia, cachexia, septic shock, viral replication and hematopoiesis. TNF-α is expressed by a great variety of cells, with numerous inductive and suppressive agents. Primarily, TNF-α is produced by macrophages in response to immunological challenges such as bacteria (lipopolysaccharides), viruses, parasites, mitogens and other cytokines. TNF-α is cytotoxic for many transformed cells (its namesake activity) but in normal diploid cells, it can stimulate proliferation (fibroblasts), differentiation (myeloid cells) or activation (neutrophils). TNF-α also shows antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses and it induces production of several other cytokines. Although TNF-α is used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent, Sigma′s cytokine, growth factor and hormone products are for research only. TNF-α and the related molecule TNF-β (LT-α) share close structural homology with 28% amino acid sequence identity and both activate the same TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Mouse and human TNF-α share 79% amino acid sequence identity. Unlike human TNF-α, the mouse form is N-glycosylated.

Physical form

Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm-filtered buffer solution containing 3mM Tris-HCl and 5% trehalose.

Analysis Note

The biological activity of TNF-α is measured by the cytolysis of murine L929 cells.

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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Protocols

Protocol Guide: WST-1 Assay for Cell Proliferation and Viability

WST-1 assay protocol for measuring cell viability, proliferation, activation and cytotoxicity. Instructions for WST-1 reagent preparation and examples of applications. Frequently asked questions and troubleshooting guide for WST-1 assay.

MTT Assay Protocol for Cell Viability and Proliferation

MTT assay protocol for measuring cell viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity. Instructions for MTT reagent preparation and examples of applications.

Protocol Guide: XTT Assay for Cell Viability and Proliferation

XTT assay protocol for measuring cell viability, proliferation, activation and cytotoxicity. Instructions for XTT reagent preparation and examples of applications.

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