Nerve growth factor β (NGFB) acts as a key mediator in neuronal and non-neuronal development, differentiation, and survival. Polymorphism of NGFB gene leads to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. Charcot arthropathy and thermal insensitivity are few of the related symptoms. NGFβ is known to promote cancer cell proliferation and metastasis, also mediates angiogenesis. It facilitates the development of various cancer including, oral, breast, lungs, pancreatic and prostate cancers. Elevated expression of NGFβ contributes to progression of human cholangiocarcinoma. In animal models, NGFβ is observed to prevent cholinergic neuron loss and enhances memory. NGF-β promotes the survival and cholinergic phenotype of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and stimulates neurite outgrowth of embryonic trigeminal motor neurons in vitro.