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Effect of lyophilized grapefruit juice on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in-vitro and in-vivo.

Drug development and industrial pharmacy (2013-12-07)
Iman S Ahmed, Mariame A Hassan, Takashi Kondo

The administration of grapefruit juice (GFJ) has been postulated to inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system and thus can enhance the uptake of substrate drugs. However, for various reasons, the results obtained have been always swaying between confirmation and refutation. This study aims at re-evaluating the effect of lyophilized freshly-prepared grapefruit juice (LGFJ) prepared from the whole peeled fruit on P-gp activity using the model drug doxorubicin (DOX) in-vitro and timolol maleate (TM) in-vivo. Human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/DX5v cells, grown under nanomolar concentration of DOX and highly expressing P-gp, were used as model cells for in-vitro studies whereas white New Zealand male rabbits were used for in-vivo studies. Results showed that the accumulation of DOX in MES-SA/DX5v cells was increased by 18.3 ± 2.0% in presence of LGFJ compared to control experiments. Results from in-vivo absorption studies showed that the relative oral bioavailability of TM ingested with LGFJ was significantly higher by 70% and 43% compared to the oral bioavailability of TM ingested with saline and a commercial GFJ, respectively. This study as such confirms the inhibitory effects of LGFJ on P-gp efflux proteins and highlights the superiority of using lyophilized freshly prepared juices over the commercially available juices in research studies. Also, the results call for further studies to assess the possibility of co-administrating LGFJ with anti-cancer agents to modulate multidrug resistance in their cellular environment or incorporating LGFJ in solid dosage forms to improve oral bioavailability of drugs.

Product Number
Product Description

Propidium iodide, ≥94.0% (HPLC)
Doxorubicin hydrochloride, suitable for fluorescence, 98.0-102.0% (HPLC)
Doxorubicin hydrochloride, 98.0-102.0% (HPLC)
Propidium iodide, ≥94% (HPLC)
Doxorubicin hydrochloride, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Timolol maleate, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Doxorubicin hydrochloride, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Propidium iodide solution, solution (1.0 mg/ml in water)
Timolol for system suitability, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Timolol maleate salt, ≥98% (TLC), powder