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Doxorubicin hydrochloride

98.0-102.0% (HPLC)

DOX, Adriamycin, Hydroxydaunorubicin hydrochloride
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C27H29NO11 · HCl
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level

biological source

synthetic (organic)


98.0-102.0% (HPLC)




216 °C (dec.) (lit.)


water: 50.0-52.0 mg/mL, clear, orange to red

antibiotic activity spectrum


Mode of action

DNA synthesis | interferes

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


Gene Information

human ... TOP2A(7153)

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General description

Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) is an anthracycline antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. The water soluble anti-cancer agent DOX is a hydroxy derivative of daunorubicin.
Chemical structure: tetracycline


Doxorubicin hydrochloride has been used:
  • in cell viability assays
  • MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay
  • as a drug in polymeric PLGA-based microparticulate drug delivery
  • to develop doxorubicin-resistant HepG2 cells (HepG2-DR) and K562 cells (K562-DR)


10 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Naturally fluorescent anthracycline antibiotic, anticancer drug. Doxorubicin is a substrate of MRP1 which was first cloned from a DOX-resistant lung cancer cell line. Fluorescent property has been exploited for the measurement of drug efflux pump activities as well as resolving the important question of intracellular localization of various multidrug resistance proteins and the role of subcellular organelles (Golgi and lysosome) in the sequestration of drugs and its implication in drug resistant phenotypes.
Substrate of MRP1; used for measurement of drug efflux pump activities. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) inhibits topoisomerase II by intercalating between base pairs and by inducing strand breaks, resulting in the inhibition of nucleic acid and protein synthesis. It also contributes to the formation of free radicals for the disruption of membrane lipids and DNA strands. DOX is used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and other cancers.

Preparation Note

Soluble in water and in isotonic sodium chloride solution, slightly soluble in methanol. Practically insoluble in chloroform, ether, and in other organic solvents.

Other Notes

Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place. Moisture sensitive. Light sensitive.


Exclamation markHealth hazard

Signal Word


Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 4 Oral - Carc. 1B - Muta. 1B - Repr. 1B

Storage Class Code

6.1C - Combustible, acute toxic Cat.3 / toxic compounds or compounds which causing chronic effects



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Enter Lot Number to search for Certificate of Analysis (COA).

Certificate of Origin

Enter Lot Number to search for Certificate of Origin (COO).

  1. Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?

    If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.

  2. What is the excitation and emission wavelength for Product D1515, Doxorubicin hydrochloride?

    Doxorubicin has excitation maximum at 470 nm and an emission maximum at 585 nm in ethanol.

  3. What is the difference between Doxorubicin hydrochloride Products D1515 and D1317?

    Product No. D1317, Doxorubicin hydrochloride solution has been discontinued and is no longer available.  We now offer Product No. D1515 which is a powder.

  4. How can I store a solution of Product D1515, Doxorubicin hydrochloride?

    Aqueous solutions are unchanged after one month at 5 °C but unstable at higher temperatures or at either acid or alkaline pH.  Several studies cite that stability is related to pH, exposure to light and the medium used for storage. Doxorubicin hydrochloride is subject to light degradation at <0.5 mg/mL, with considerable loss of bioactivity. If stored at 25 °C in the dark in 5% glucose, pH 4.7 (or 3.3% glucose + 0.3% sodium chloride, pH 4.4), solutions were stable (5% or less change) for at least 4 weeks.

  5. What can be used to make a solution of Product D1515, Doxorubicin hydrochloride?

    The solubility of doxorubicin is tested in water (50 mg/mL), yielding a clear orange to red solution.

  6. How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?

    The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.

  7. How do I find price and availability?

    There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products. Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers.

  8. What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?

    Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product. 

  9. My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?

    Ask a Scientist here.

In vitro study of anticancer drug doxorubicin in PLGA-based microparticles
Lin R, et al.
Biomaterials, 26(21), 4476-4485 (2005)
Multifunctional polymer-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles for pH-responsive targeted drug delivery
Niedermayer S, et al.
Nanoscale, 7(17), 7953-7964 (2015)
Current Pharmaceutical Design (1999)
The release behavior of doxorubicin hydrochloride from medicated fibers prepared by emulsion-electrospinning
Xu X, et al.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 70(1), 165-170 (2008)
Cancer Chemotherapy: A Nursing Process Approach (2001)


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