MilliporeSigma
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Conjugated linoleic acid induces an atheroprotective macrophage MΦ2 phenotype and limits foam cell formation.

Conjugated linoleic acid induces an atheroprotective macrophage MΦ2 phenotype and limits foam cell formation.

Journal of inflammation (London, England) (2015-02-28)
Monica de Gaetano, Kawthar Alghamdi, Simone Marcone, Orina Belton
ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attack and strokes, is a progresive dyslipidemic and inflammatory disease where monocyte-derived macrophage cells play a pivotal role. Although most of the mechanisms that contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis have been identified, there is limited information on those governing regression. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of isomers of linoleic acid that differ in the position and/or geometry of their double bonds. We have previously shown that a specific CLA blend (80:20 cis-9,trans-11:trans-10,cis-12-CLA) induces regression of pre-established atherosclerosis in vivo, via modulation of monocyte/macrophage function. However, the exact mechanisms through which CLA mediates this effect remain to be elucidated. Here, we address if CLA primes monocytes towards an anti-inflammatory MΦ2 macrophage and examine the effect of individual CLA isomers and the atheroprotective blend on monocyte-macrophage differentiation, cytokine generation, foam cell formation and cholesterol metabolism in human peripheral blood monocyte (HPBMC)-derived macrophages. cis-9,trans-11-CLA and the atheroprotective 80:20 CLA blend regulates expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and modulates the inflammatory cytokine profile of macrophages and foam cells. In addition, cis-9,trans-11-CLA and CLA blend primes HPBMCs towards an anti-inflammatory MΦ2 phenotype, characterised by increased scavenger receptor (CD36) and efflux protein (ABCA-1) expression. Furthermore, this altered macrophage phenotype impacts on foam cell formation, inhibiting ox-LDL accumulation and promoting cholesterol efflux via both PPARγ and LXRα dependent pathways. The data increases the understanding of the pathways regulated by CLA in atheroprotection, namely, inhibiting the progressive acquisition of a pro-inflammatory macrophage phenotype.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, ACS reagent, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, puriss. p.a., dried, ≤0.02% water
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.9% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
GW9662, >98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamine, BioUltra, ≥99.5% (NT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide solution, 50 wt. % in H2O
SAFC
L-Glutamine
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, natural, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamine
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, technical grade, 90%
Sigma-Aldrich
Oleic acid, meets analytical specification of Ph, Eur., 65.0-88.0% (GC)
Supelco
Dimethyl sulfoxide, analytical standard
Supelco
Oleic acid, analytical standard
Supelco
L-Glutamine, certified reference material, TraceCERT®
Supelco
L-Glutamine, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, anhydrous, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
SAFC
Cholesterol, Plant-Derived, SyntheChol®, NF, Ph. Eur., JP
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, sterile-filtered, BioPerformance Certified, meets EP, USP testing specifications, suitable for hybridoma
Sigma-Aldrich
8-Octanoyloxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt, suitable for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPCE)
USP
Dimethyl sulfoxide, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Oleic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Dimethyl sulfoxide, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Oleic acid, Selectophore, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Dimethyl sulfoxide, for inorganic trace analysis, ≥99.99995% (metals basis)
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamine, meets USP testing specifications, suitable for cell culture, 99.0-101.0%, from non-animal source
Sigma-Aldrich
L-Glutamine, ReagentPlus®, ≥99% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, ≥99.5% (GC), suitable for plant cell culture