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  • Premature chromosome condensation induced by caffeine, 2-aminopurine, staurosporine and sodium metavanadate in S-phase arrested HeLa cells is associated with a decrease in Chk1 phosphorylation, formation of phospho-H2AX and minor cytoskeletal rearrangements.

Premature chromosome condensation induced by caffeine, 2-aminopurine, staurosporine and sodium metavanadate in S-phase arrested HeLa cells is associated with a decrease in Chk1 phosphorylation, formation of phospho-H2AX and minor cytoskeletal rearrangements.

Histochemistry and cell biology (2011-02-25)
Dorota Rybaczek, Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat
ABSTRACT

Here, we demonstrate that in HeLa cells, Ser317 of Chk1 undergoes phosphorylation in response to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea. We also demonstrate the existence of constitutive (interphase and mitotic) Chk1 kinase phosphorylation, the translocation of its phosphorylated form from the nucleus to cytoplasm in prometaphase as well as strong labeling of apoptotic nuclei with α-Chk1(S317) antibodies. Additionally, we show that caffeine, 2-aminopurine, staurosporine and sodium metavanadate can induce premature chromosome condensation (PCC) by the abrogation of the S-M checkpoint. Staurosporine appeared to be the most effective PCC inductor, and as in the case of the remaining inductors, the addition of hydroxyurea each time brought about an increase in the number of cells showing PCC symptoms (synergic effect). The forced premature mitosis was accompanied by an increasing index of double-strand breaks marked by the phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139. Moreover, we found that the chemicals used brought about minor actin and tubulin network rearrangements that occurred following either replication stress or drug-induced cell cycle delay. At the same time, it was found that the extent of the cytoskeleton rearrangement did not hinder PCC in all its subperiods, i.e., from PCC-type prophase to PCC-type telophase.

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