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E1510

Sigma-Aldrich

Ethidium bromide solution

BioReagent, for molecular biology, 10 mg/mL in H2O

Synonym(s):
Homidium bromide, 3,8-Diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide, EtBr
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C21H20BrN3
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
394.31
Beilstein:
3642536
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.31

Quality Level

grade

for molecular biology

product line

BioReagent

concentration

10 mg/mL in H2O

application(s)

electrophoresis: suitable

suitability

suitable for gel electrophoresis

SMILES string

[Br-].CC[n+]1c(-c2ccccc2)c3cc(N)ccc3c4ccc(N)cc14

InChI

1S/C21H19N3.BrH/c1-2-24-20-13-16(23)9-11-18(20)17-10-8-15(22)12-19(17)21(24)14-6-4-3-5-7-14;/h3-13,23H,2,22H2,1H3;1H

InChI key

ZMMJGEGLRURXTF-UHFFFAOYSA-N

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Application

Ethidium bromide solution has been used:
  • as a stain to visualize U937 cells to assess cell viability
  • to detect polymerase chain reaction products
  • in agarose gel electrophoresis based gel retardation assay

Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is the most commonly used nucleic acid stain for PAGE or agarose gel electrophoresis. The fluorescence of EtBr increases 21-fold upon binding to double-stranded RNA and 25-fold on binding double-stranded DNA so that destaining the background is not necessary with a low stain concentration (10 μg/ml). Ethidium bromide has been used in a number of fluorimetric assays for nucleic acids. It has been shown to bind to single-stranded DNA (although not as strongly) and triple-stranded DNA. Because of its ability to bind to DNA, EtBr is an inhibitor of DNA polymerase.

Packaging

10 mL in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Ethidium bromide intercalates double-stranded DNA and RNA and acts as a frameshift mutagen. It can also be used in conjunction with acridine orange to differentiate between viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells.

Reconstitution

For staining a gel after electrophoresis, dilute a sample of the stock solution to 0.5 μg/ml with water and incubate the gel for 15-30 min. Destaining is usually not needed but can be carried out in water for 15 min if decreased background is necessary. The DNA bands can then be detected on a UV light box (254 nm wavelength). Ethidium bromide can also be incorporated into the gel and running buffer at 0.5 μg/ml and visualized immediately after electrophoresis.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbonesHealth hazard

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 3 Inhalation - Muta. 2

Storage Class Code

6.1D - Non-combustible, acute toxic Cat.3 / toxic hazardous materials or hazardous materials causing chronic effects

WGK

nwg

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

pH-sensitive oncolytic adenovirus hybrid targeting acidic tumor microenvironment and angiogenesis
Choi JW, et al.
Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society, 205, 134-143 (2015)
Application of a new wall-less plate technology to complex multistep cell-based investigations using suspension cells
Quinones GA, et al.
Blood, 121(7), e25-e33 (2013)
Keith E Herold et al.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 504, 441-458 (2009-01-23)
A prototype handheld, compact, rapid thermocycler was developed for multiplex analysis of nucleic acids in an inexpensive, portable configuration. Instead of the commonly used Peltier heating/cooling element, electric thin-film resistive heater and a miniature fan enable rapid heating and cooling...
Ulrich Braunschweig et al.
Genome research, 24(11), 1774-1786 (2014-09-27)
Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor RNAs is responsible for greatly expanding the regulatory and functional capacity of eukaryotic genomes. Of the different classes of AS, intron retention (IR) is the least well understood. In plants and unicellular eukaryotes, IR is...
Patrick Seitz et al.
PLoS genetics, 10(1), e1004066-e1004066 (2014-01-07)
The DNA uptake of naturally competent bacteria has been attributed to the action of DNA uptake machineries resembling type IV pilus complexes. However, the protein(s) for pulling the DNA across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria remain speculative. Here we...

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