Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a hygroscopic, high polarity amphiphilic solvent with an ability to dissolve many compounds. Cytotoxic study of DMSO on the pulp tissue repair-related activity of odontoblast-like cells showed it produced minor effects. Along with phosphorus pentaoxide it participates in the oxidation of carbohydrates to afford aldosuloses and aldosiduloses. DMSO participates in the oxidation of some partially-acetylated carbohydrates followed by elimination to afford unsaturated, derivatives. Solubility of amylose and amylopectin in DMSO has been evaluated.
DMSO has been used to prepare the DMSO-phosphate buffer solution, which was used to dissolve the selective ETB (ET = endothelin) receptor antagonist in a study. It has been used for the preparation of nysatin solution.
Dimethyl sulfoxide may be used in the synthesis of the following:
- α, β−Unsaturated carbonyl sugar derivatives.
- Conversion of secondary bromides or olefins to bromohydrin.
- Synthesis of α-hydroxycarbonyls from corresponding ketones.
Supercools easily and remelts slowly at room temperature. Solidified product can be re-liquified by warming to room temperature without detriment to the product.