Controlled and efficient immobilization of specific biomolecules is a key technology to introduce new, favorable functions to materials suitable for biomedical applications. Here, we describe an innovative and efficient, two-step methodology for the stable immobilization of various biomolecules, including small peptides and enzymes onto TEMPO oxidized nanofibrillated cellulose (TO-NFC). The introduction of carboxylate groups to NFC by TEMPO oxidation provided a high surface density of negative charges able to drive the adsorption of biomolecules and take part in covalent cross-linking reactions with 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide (EDAC) and glutaraldehyde (Ga) chemistry. Up to 0.27 μmol of different biomolecules per mg of TO-NFC could be reversibly immobilized by electrostatic interaction. An additional chemical cross-linking step prevented desorption of more than 80% of these molecules. Using the cysteine-protease papain as model, a highly active papain-TO-NFC conjugate was achieved. Once papain was immobilized, 40% of the initial enzymatic activity was retained, with an increase in kcat from 213 to >700 s(-1) for the covalently immobilized enzymes. The methodology presented in this work expands the range of application for TO-NFC in the biomedical field by enabling well-defined hybrid biomaterials with a high density of functionalization.