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Investigation of potential breath biomarkers for the early diagnosis of breast cancer using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry (2014-05-13)
Jie Li, Yulan Peng, Yong Liu, Wenwen Li, Ya Jin, Zhentao Tang, Yixiang Duan
ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC) remains the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. We investigated 4 straight aldehydes in the exhaled breath as potential early BC diagnostic biomarkers. End-tailed breath were collected by Bio-VOC® sampler and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis. The diagnostic accuracies were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. A predictive model/equation was generated using the 4 biomarkers and validated by leave-one-out cross-validation. All four potential biomarkers demonstrated significant differences in concentrations between BC and healthy controls (HC) (p<0.05). The areas under the curves (AUCs) in HC vs BCI-II model using hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal were 0.816, 0.809, 0.731, and 0.830, respectively. The AUC for their combined use was 0.934 (sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 95.8%) in the early diagnosis of BC. The predictive model/equation exhibited good sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (91.7%) in distinguishing between HC and BC (cross-validation: sensitivity 68.2% and specificity 91.7%). The diagnostic values of 4 exhaled straight aldehydes as early diagnostic biomarkers for BC were successfully verified and the diagnostic accuracy improved in their combined use.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Hexanal, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Octanal, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Nonanal, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Heptaldehyde, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Heptanal, ≥95%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Hexanal, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexanal, ≥97%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Nonanal, natural, ≥98%, FG
Supelco
Nonanal, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Octanal, natural, ≥95%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Octanal, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexanal, natural, ≥95%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Nonanal, ≥95%, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
Octanal, ≥95%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Heptaldehyde, analytical standard