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Investigation of potential breath biomarkers for the early diagnosis of breast cancer using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry (2014-05-13)
Jie Li, Yulan Peng, Yong Liu, Wenwen Li, Ya Jin, Zhentao Tang, Yixiang Duan
ABSTRACT

Breast cancer (BC) remains the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women. We investigated 4 straight aldehydes in the exhaled breath as potential early BC diagnostic biomarkers. End-tailed breath were collected by Bio-VOC® sampler and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis. The diagnostic accuracies were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves. A predictive model/equation was generated using the 4 biomarkers and validated by leave-one-out cross-validation. All four potential biomarkers demonstrated significant differences in concentrations between BC and healthy controls (HC) (p<0.05). The areas under the curves (AUCs) in HC vs BCI-II model using hexanal, heptanal, octanal, and nonanal were 0.816, 0.809, 0.731, and 0.830, respectively. The AUC for their combined use was 0.934 (sensitivity 91.7%, specificity 95.8%) in the early diagnosis of BC. The predictive model/equation exhibited good sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (91.7%) in distinguishing between HC and BC (cross-validation: sensitivity 68.2% and specificity 91.7%). The diagnostic values of 4 exhaled straight aldehydes as early diagnostic biomarkers for BC were successfully verified and the diagnostic accuracy improved in their combined use.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Heptaldehyde, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Heptaldehyde, 95%
Sigma-Aldrich
Octanal, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Heptanal, ≥95%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Octanal, natural, ≥95%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Octanal, ≥95%, FCC, FG
Supelco
Octanal, analytical standard
Supelco
Nonanal, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexanal, ≥97%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Nonanal, ≥95%, FCC
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexanal, natural, ≥95%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Hexanal, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Nonanal, 95%
Supelco
Hexanal, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Nonanal, natural, ≥98%, FG