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Engineering towards nitroreductase functionality in ene-reductase scaffolds.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology (2015-02-24)
Jonathan T Park, Lizzette M Gómez Ramos, Andreas S Bommarius
ABSTRACT

Nitroreductases (NRs) and ene-reductases (ERs) both utilize flavin mononucleotide cofactors but catalyze distinct reactions. NRs reduce nitroaromatics, whereas ERs reduce unsaturated C=C double bonds, and these functionalities are known to somewhat overlap. Recent studies on the ER xenobiotic reductase A (XenA) from Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the possibility of increasing NR activity with active site modifications. Structural comparison between NRs and ERs led us to hypothesize that active site cavity size plays an important role in determining enzyme functionality. Residues of ER KYE1 from Kluyveromyces lactis were selected to increase the binding pocket size, compensate for hydrogen bonding pattern changes, and eliminate ER activity. Single variants were screened, and promising mutations were combined. Variant F296A/Y275A showed a 100-fold improvement in NR specific activity over wild-type, and variant H191A/F296A/Y375A exhibited complete conversion to a NR.

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