Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein in humans. It has a molecular mass of 66.5 kDa.
Gel filtration molecular weight marker
Albumin from bovine serum has been used:
It can be used as a gel filtration molecular weight marker. It can be used in medical studies to quantify binding capacity and adsorption rate of protein enrichment and separation medium critical in proteomic research.
- for blocking of nonspecific immunoglobulin during immunohistochemical reactions.
- to coat microplates for blocking non-specific binding during I-ELISA (Indirect Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay)
- as molecular mass standard in analytical gel filtration chromatography for Superdex® 75 10/300 GL gel filtration column.
- for measuring fluorescence for PR1 (phytofluor red 1) by using Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS)
- as a reference mixture along with horse Mb in Size Exclusion Chromatography
Bovine serum albumin also refers as BSA or Fraction V is a protein isolated from cows. BSA can block vacant binding sites in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both poly-l-lysine (PLL)-treated and non-treated microwells. It can also triggers the insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
Certain conformational and primary-sequence epitopes of BSA are suspected allergens in human beef and milk allergies.
High levels of albumin are associated with dehydration. Albumin turnover is seen in infants with iron deficiency anemia. Albumin in serum level is associated with advanced liver disease.
Serum albumin may be referred to as Fraction V. This naming convention is taken from the original Cohn method of fractionating serum proteins using cold ethanol precipitation. Serum albumin was found in the fifth ethanol fraction using Cohn′s method. Since then, the term "Fraction V" has been used by some to describe serum albumin regardless of the method of preparation. Others have used this term to describe serum albumin purified by ethanol fractionation methods that have been highly modified since the original Cohn method was described. Sigma-Aldrich manufactures and distributes serum albumins purified from a variety of primary methods including the true Cohn fractionation method, modified ethanol fractionation methods, heat shock and chromatography. Additional purification steps may include crystallization or charcoal filtration.
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