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In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit, TMR red

sufficient for ≤50 tests

red, tm, in situ cell death detection kit, tm red, in situ cell death detection kit


sufficient for ≤50 tests

Quality Level



shipped in

dry ice

storage temp.


General description

Widely used methods to determine apoptosis include the analysis of the genomic DNA by agarose-gel electrophoresis and DNA fragmentation assays based on 3H-thymidine and, alternatively, 5-Bromo-2′-deoxy-uridine. The methods involve the separation of fragmented, low molecular weight DNA from unfragmented, high molecular weight DNA in a given cell population. Thus, these methods do not provide information about the fate of an individual cell in a given cell population, or particularly, in tissue sections. Alternatively, individual apoptotic cells may be microscopically recognized because of the characteristic appearance of nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, but this method is subjective and limited to a relatively narrow time window when the morphological changes are at a maximum.
The hallmark of apoptosis is DNA degradation, which in early stages, is selective to the internucleosomal DNA linker regions. The DNA cleavage may yield double-stranded and single-stranded DNA breaks (nicks). Both types of breaks can be detected by labeling the free 3′-OH termini with modified nucleotides (e.g., biotin-dUTP, DIG-dUTP, fluorescein-dUTP) in an enzymatic reaction. The enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) catalyzes the template-independent polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides to the 3′-end of single- and double-stranded DNA. This method has also been termed TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling). Alternatively, free 3′-OH groups may be labeled using DNA polymerases by the template-dependent mechanism called nick translation. However, the TUNEL method is considered to be more sensitive and faster.

Sample material: Cells in suspension, cytospin and cell smear preparations, adherent cells grown on slides, and frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

The In Situ Cell Death Detection Kit, TMR red is based on the detection of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks that occur at the early stages of apoptosis.
Apoptotic cells are fixed and permeabilized. Subsequently, the cells are incubated with the TUNEL reaction mixture that contains TdT and TMR-dUTP. During this incubation period, TdT catalyzes the addition of TMR-dUTP at free 3′-OH groups in single- and double-stranded DNA. After washing, the label incorporated at the damaged sites of the DNA is visualized by flow cytometry and/or fluorescence microscopy.
Kit for the detection and quantification of apoptotic cell death on a single-cell level by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, and for double labeling with fluorescein-labeled cell markers (TMR red).


The TUNEL reaction preferentially labels DNA strand breaks generated during apoptosis. This allows discrimination of apoptosis from necrosis and from primary DNA strand breaks induced by cytostatic drugs or irradiation.


Precise, fast, and simple technique for detecting and quantitating apoptotic DNA fragmentation at  the single-cell level in cells and tissues with a red fluorescent label for fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry.
In Situ cell death detection kit, TMR red has been used in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin–dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. It has been used in apoptosis detection assay.


1 kit containing 2 components.

Preparation Note

The TUNEL reaction mixture is prepared by mixing the Enzyme Solution and the Label Solution prior to use.
Working concentration: Enzyme concentration
The optimal enzyme concentration range from 0.5 to 5 U per assay. For a standard 50 μl PCR, we recommend using 2 U of the enzyme blend.
Working solution: Add total volume (50 μl) of Enzyme Solution to the remaining 450 μl Label Solution to obtain 500 μl TUNEL reaction mixture.
Mix well to equilibrate components.
Storage conditions (working solution): The TUNEL reaction mixture should be prepared immediately before use and should not be stored. Keep TUNEL reaction mixture on ice until use.

Other Notes

For life science research only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Kit Components Only

Product No.

  • Enzyme Solution (TdT)

  • Label Solution (TMR-dUTP)


Health hazardEnvironment

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Aquatic Chronic 2 - Carc. 1B Inhalation

Storage Class Code

6.1D - Non-combustible, acute toxic Cat.3 / toxic hazardous materials or hazardous materials causing chronic effects



Flash Point(F)

does not flash

Flash Point(C)

does not flash

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Quotes and Ordering

Different toxicity of cadmium telluride, silicon, and carbon nanomaterials against hemocytes in silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Li K L, et al.
Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, 7(79), 50317-50327 (2017)
Joel R Garbow et al.
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, 300(6), G956-G967 (2011-04-02)
Low-carbohydrate diets are used to manage obesity, seizure disorders, and malignancies of the central nervous system. These diets create a distinctive, but incompletely defined, cellular, molecular, and integrated metabolic state. Here, we determine the systemic and hepatic effects of long-term
Antioxidants rescue photoreceptors in rd1 mice: Relationship with thiol metabolism.
Miranda M, et al.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 48(2), 216-222 (2010)
A novel, low-volume method for organ culture of embryonic kidneys that allows development of cortico-medullary anatomical organization.
Sebinger D D, et al.
PLoS ONE, 5(5), e10550-e10550 (2010)
Cathleen Teh et al.
BMC developmental biology, 10, 110-110 (2010-11-03)
KillerRed (KR) is a novel photosensitizer that efficiently generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in KR-expressing cells upon intense green or white light illumination in vitro, resulting in damage to their plasma membrane and cell death. We report an in vivo


Apoptosis Assays

Cellular apoptosis assays to detect programmed cell death using Annexin V, Caspase and TUNEL DNA fragmentation assays.

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