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Tungsten oxide (WO3-x) nanoparticle ink

Avantama P-10, Tungsten oxide nanoparticle dispersion, WO3 ink, Tungsten oxide suspension, Nanograde P-10, WO3 dispersion
Linear Formula:

Quality Level




2.5 wt. % in 2-propanol


translucent green to blue

particle size

<50 nm (BET)


0.7992 g/mL at 25 °C

General description

This WO3-x nanoparticle ink is for slot-dye, spin-coating and doctor blading for the use as hole transport layer in printed electronics. Tungsten oxide nanoparticle ink is a hole-selective interface layer ink based on a colloidal suspension of tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles in isopropanol. The average size of WO3 particle is optimized around 12-16 nm. Tungsten oxide nanoparticle exhibits high work function, processability and easy layer formation on hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic substrates.This WO3-x nanoparticle ink is universally applicable in normal and inverted architecture solar cells.
Annealing temperature <100°C.


WO3 nanoparticle ink can be applied in OPV cells as hole extraction layer (HEL) materials. Tungsten oxide nanoparticle ink can be mixed with PEDOT:PSS formulations in order to fine tune electronic and morphological dry layer properties (e.g. conductivity, surface roughness or layer porosity).

Other Notes

Prior to application: Ultrasonicate and (optionally) filter through 0.45 μm PTFE filter
Working conditions: Application and film drying under nitrogen (or low humidity)
Post-treatment: Annealing of deposited WO3-x films at 80°C - 120°C

Legal Information

Product of Avantama Ltd.


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Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Precautionary Statements

Hazard Classifications

Eye Irrit. 2 - Flam. Liq. 2 - STOT SE 3

Target Organs

Central nervous system

Storage Class Code

3 - Flammable liquids



Flash Point(F)

53.6 °F - closed cup

Flash Point(C)

12 °C - closed cup

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

High Fill Factor Polymer Solar Cells Incorporating a Low Temperature Solution Processed WO3 Hole Extraction Layer
Christoph J. Brabec; et al.
Advanced Energy Materials, 2, 1433-1438 (2012)
A universal method to form the equivalent ohmic contact for efficient solution-processed organic tandem solar cells
Journal of Material Chemistry A, 2, 14896?14902-14896?14902 (2014)
Lin Zhou et al.
Scientific reports, 9(1), 8778-8778 (2019-06-21)
This paper presents perovskite solar cells employed with WO3 nanoparticles embedded carbon top electrode. WO3 nanoparticles works as an inorganic hole-transport material (HTM) to promote the hole-extraction in the perovskite/carbon interface as revealed by efficiency, electrochemical impedance and external quantum
Inverted structure organic photovoltaic devices employing a low temperature solution processed WO3 anode buffer layer
Christoph J. Brabec; et al.
Organic Electronics, 13(11), 2479-2484 (2012)
Chun-Chao Chen et al.
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), 26(32), 5670-5677 (2014-07-22)
Tandem solar cells have the potential to improve photon conversion efficiencies (PCEs) beyond the limits of single-junction devices. In this study, a triple-junction tandem design is demonstrated by employing three distinct organic donor materials having bandgap energies ranging from 1.4


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