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Prevalence, genetic diversity, and host range of tectiviruses among members of the Bacillus cereus group.

Applied and environmental microbiology (2014-05-06)
Annika Gillis, Jacques Mahillon
ABSTRACT

GIL01, Bam35, GIL16, AP50, and Wip1 are tectiviruses preying on the Bacillus cereus group. Despite the significant contributions of phages in different biological processes, little is known about the dealings taking place between tectiviruses and their Gram-positive bacterial hosts. Therefore, this work focuses on characterizing the interactions between tectiviruses and the B. cereus group by assessing their occurrence and genetic diversity and evaluating their host range. To study the occurrence of tectiviruses in the B. cereus group, 2,000 isolates were evaluated using primers designed to be specific to two variable regions detected in previously described elements. PCR and propagation tests revealed that tectivirus-like elements occurred in less than 3% of the isolates. Regardless of this limited distribution, several novel tectiviruses were found, and partial DNA sequencing indicated that a greater diversity exists within the family Tectiviridae. Analyses of the selected variable regions, along with their host range, showed that tectiviruses in the B. cereus group can be clustered mainly into two different groups: the ones infecting B. anthracis and those isolated from other B. cereus group members. In order to address the host range of some novel tectiviruses, 120 strains were tested for sensitivity. The results showed that all the tested tectiviruses produced lysis in at least one B. cereus sensu lato strain. Moreover, no simple relationship between the infection patterns of the tectiviruses and their diversity was found.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Mitomycin C from Streptomyces caespitosus, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Mitomycin C from Streptomyces caespitosus, powder, contains NaCl as solubilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Mitomycin C from Streptomyces caespitosus, ≥970 μg/mg (USP XXIV)