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Direct activation of RIP3/MLKL-dependent necrosis by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) protein ICP6 triggers host antiviral defense.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014-10-16)
Xing Wang, Yun Li, Shan Liu, Xiaoliang Yu, Lin Li, Cuilin Shi, Wenhui He, Jun Li, Lei Xu, Zhilin Hu, Lu Yu, Zhongxu Yang, Qin Chen, Lin Ge, Zili Zhang, Biqi Zhou, Xuejun Jiang, She Chen, Sudan He
ABSTRACT

The receptor-interacting kinase-3 (RIP3) and its downstream substrate mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) have emerged as the key cellular components in programmed necrotic cell death. Receptors for the cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family and Toll-like receptors (TLR) 3 and 4 are able to activate RIP3 through receptor-interacting kinase-1 and Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing IFN-β, respectively. This form of cell death has been implicated in the host-defense system. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive the activation of RIP3 by a variety of pathogens, other than the above-mentioned receptors, are largely unknown. Here, we report that human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers RIP3-dependent necrosis. This process requires MLKL but is independent of TNF receptor, TLR3, cylindromatosis, and host RIP homotypic interaction motif-containing protein DNA-dependent activator of IFN regulatory factor. After HSV-1 infection, the viral ribonucleotide reductase large subunit (ICP6) interacts with RIP3. The formation of the ICP6-RIP3 complex requires the RHIM domains of both proteins. An HSV-1 ICP6 deletion mutant failed to cause effective necrosis of HSV-1-infected cells. Furthermore, ectopic expression of ICP6, but not RHIM mutant ICP6, directly activated RIP3/MLKL-mediated necrosis. Mice lacking RIP3 exhibited severely impaired control of HSV-1 replication and pathogenesis. Therefore, this study reveals a previously uncharacterized host antipathogen mechanism.

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