MilliporeSigma
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

Pharmaceutical development and technology (2013-06-15)
Hao Lou, Min Liu, Wen Qu, James Johnson, Ed Brunson, Hassan Almoazen
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%, anhydrous, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Povidone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ACS reagent, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%, anhydrous, granular
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., anhydrous, ≥99.0%
USP
Crospovidone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
USP
Povidone, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, anhydrous, 99.0-100.5% (calc. to the dried substance)
Supelco
Povidone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Crospovidone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, ≥99.0%, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Povidone, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, tested according to Ph. Eur., anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99.0% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium hydrogen sulfate, technical grade
Sigma-Aldrich
Kollidon® 25
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Supelco
Poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone), ~110 μm particle size
Sigma-Aldrich
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, average Mw ~55,000
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium iodide, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium iodide, puriss. p.a., ≥99.0% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate decahydrate, puriss. p.a., crystallized, ≥99.0% (calc. based on dry substance, T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium iodide, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium iodide, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99-100.5% (calc. to the dried substance)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium iodide, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate decahydrate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium sulfate decahydrate, reagent grade, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium iodide, ReagentPlus®, ≥99%