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The effects of toluene on the central nervous system.

Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology (2004-01-30)
Christopher M Filley, William Halliday, B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
ABSTRACT

In recent decades the organic solvent toluene (methylbenzene) has emerged as one of the best-studied neurotoxins. Long-term and intense exposure to toluene vapors in humans who abuse spray paint and related substances has led to the recognition that toluene has a severe impact on central nervous system myelin. Chronic toluene abuse produces a devastating neurological disorder, of which dementia is the most disabling component. The clinical syndrome, toluene leukoencephalopathy, can be detected by a combination of characteristic symptoms and signs, detailed neurobehavioral evaluation, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper, we consider the impact of toluene abuse on our society, describe the specific neurobehavioral deficits in toluene leukoencephalopathy, review the spectrum of neuroimaging findings in patients with this disorder, summarize the teratogenic effects of toluene in both humans and animal models, and offer possible explanations for the range of neuropathological damage seen in brains of individuals who chronically abuse toluene.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.7% (GC)
Supelco
Toluene, HPLC grade, 99.8%
Supelco
Toluene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Toluene, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, HPLC Plus, for HPLC, GC, and residue analysis, ≥99.9%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, Laboratory Reagent, ≥99.3%
Sigma-Aldrich
Toluene, suitable for HPLC, 99.9%
Supelco
Toluene solution, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, 200 μg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL
Supelco
Toluene solution, certified reference material, 5000 μg/mL in methanol
Supelco
Residual Solvent - Toluene, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material