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Development of a synchronous enzyme-reaction system for a highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

Journal of biochemistry (2002-01-05)
Kuniyo Inouye, Iori Ueno, Shin-ichi Yokoyama, Toshiyuki Sakaki
ABSTRACT

A synchronous enzyme-reaction system using water-soluble formazan and a non-enzymatic electron mediator was developed and applied to an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The reaction system consists of four steps: (I) dephosphorylation of NADP(+) to produce NAD(+) by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), (II) reduction of NAD(+) to produce NADH with oxidation of ethanol to yield acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), (III) reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) to produce formazan by NADH via 1-methoxy-5-methyl-phenazinium methyl sulfate (PMS), and (IV) re-reduction of NAD(+) to produce NADH by ADH. During each cycle, one molecule of tetrazolium is converted to one molecule of formazan. The concentration of formazan during the reaction was given by second-order polynomials of the reaction time. Kinetic studies strongly suggested that the synchronous enzyme-reaction system had the potential to detect an analyte at the attomole level in EIA. On the basis of the kinetic studies, optimal conditions for EIA incorporating the synchronous system were examined. NADP(+) was purified thoroughly to remove minor traces of NAD(+) in the preparation, and an ADH preparation contaminated with the lowest level of ALP activity was used. When the synchronous system was applied to a sandwich-type EIA for human C-reactive protein, the protein was detected with a sensitivity of 50 attomole per well of a micro-titer plate (0.1 ml) in a 1-h reaction. In addition, EIA with water-soluble formazan showed a more quantitative and sensitive result than that with insoluble formazan. These findings indicated that the (WST-1)-PMS system introduced in this study has a great potential for highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
1-Methoxy-5-methylphenazinium methyl sulfate, ≥95%