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  • Cytosolic HSC20 integrates de novo iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis with the CIAO1-mediated transfer to recipients.

Cytosolic HSC20 integrates de novo iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis with the CIAO1-mediated transfer to recipients.

Human molecular genetics (2018-01-09)
Ki Soon Kim, Nunziata Maio, Anamika Singh, Tracey A Rouault
ABSTRACT

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are cofactors in hundreds of proteins involved in multiple cellular processes, including mitochondrial respiration, the maintenance of genome stability, ribosome biogenesis and translation. Fe-S cluster biogenesis is performed by multiple enzymes that are highly conserved throughout evolution, and mutations in numerous biogenesis factors are now recognized to cause a wide range of previously uncategorized rare human diseases. Recently, a complex formed of components of the cytoplasmic Fe-S cluster assembly (CIA) machinery, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, was found to deliver Fe-S clusters to a subset of proteins involved in DNA metabolism, but it was unclear how this complex acquired its fully synthesized Fe-S clusters, because Fe-S clusters have been alleged to be assembled de novo solely in the mitochondrial matrix. Here, we investigated the potential role of the human cochaperone HSC20 in cytosolic Fe-S assembly and found that HSC20 assists Fe-S cluster delivery to cytosolic and nuclear Fe-S proteins. Cytosolic HSC20 (C-HSC20) mediated complex formation between components of the cytosolic Fe-S biogenesis pathway (ISC), including the primary scaffold, ISCU1, and the cysteine desulfurase, NFS1, and the CIA targeting complex, consisting of CIAO1, FAM96B and MMS19, to facilitate Fe-S cluster insertion into cytoplasmic and nuclear Fe-S recipients. Thus, C-HSC20 integrates initial Fe-S biosynthesis with the transfer activities of the CIA targeting system. Our studies demonstrate that a novel cytosolic pathway functions in parallel to the mitochondrial ISC to perform de novo Fe-S biogenesis, and to escort Fe-S clusters to cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins.

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