Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen response modifier (SERM), protein kinase C inhibitor and anti-angiogenetic factor. Tamoxifen is a prodrug that is metabolized to active metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) and endoxifen by cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. In breast cancer, the gene repressor activity of tamoxifen against ERBB2 is dependent upon PAX2. Blocks estradiol-stimulated VEGF production in breast tumor cells.
Tamoxifen has been used to facilitate the recombination of ect2flox allele in mouse organs91. It has also been used to study its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation92.
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Protein kinase C inhibitor. Induces apoptosis in human malignant glioma cell lines. Tamoxifen and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen are selective estrogen response modifiers (SERMs) that act as estrogen antagonists in mammary gland. Blocks estradiol-stimulated VEGF production in breast tumor cells.
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Tamoxifen is soluble in chloroform at 50 mg/ml and yields a clear, colorless to faint yellow solution. It is also soluble in methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and propylene glycol. Stock solutions of tamoxifen can also be prepared in DMSO at 10 mM. However, it is practically insoluble in water (solubility is <0.01%, 20° C). Solutions are sensitive to UV light, and DMSO solutions are stable when stored at -20° C in the dark.