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N7878

Sigma-Aldrich

Nitrofurantoin

98.0-102.0% (EP, UV)

Synonym(s):
N-(5-Nitro-2-furfurylidene)-1-aminohydantoin, Furadoxyl, Nitrofurantoine
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C8H6N4O5
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
238.16
Beilstein:
893207
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.85

Quality Level

assay

98.0-102.0% (EP, UV)

form

(Crystalline Powder or crystals)

color

yellow

solubility

DMF: soluble 50 mg/mL

antibiotic activity spectrum

Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria

Mode of action

DNA synthesis | interferes
cell wall synthesis | interferes
protein synthesis | interferes

SMILES string

[O-][N+](=O)c1ccc(\C=N\N2CC(=O)NC2=O)o1

InChI

1S/C8H6N4O5/c13-6-4-11(8(14)10-6)9-3-5-1-2-7(17-5)12(15)16/h1-3H,4H2,(H,10,13,14)/b9-3+

InChI key

NXFQHRVNIOXGAQ-YCRREMRBSA-N

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Application

Nitrofurantoin is a nitrofuran antibiotic that is used as a substrate of bacterial nitrofuran reductase to study the interactions of active metabolites with DNA, ribosomal proteins and metabolic and pro-oxidant processes. It is used to study nitrofurantoin-induced toxicity and antibiotic resistance.Nitrofurantoin is suitable for killing L. monocytogenes-persisters in vitro. Studies has described the use of antioxidants to mitigate the toxic effects of nitrofurantoin on human WI-38 fibroblasts in culture. Alterations to the in vitro morphologic features, viability, and phagocytic activity of isolated bovine mammary polymorphonuclear leukocytes caused by various antibiotics, including nitrofurantoin, have been reported.

Packaging

10, 25, 100, 250 g in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Nitrofurantoin is an antibactericidal compound that has been historically prepared by the reaction of 1-aminohydantoin sulfate and 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde diacetate. It shows activity against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nitrofurantoin is effective against enterococci, staphylococci, streptococci, corneybacteria, many strains of Escherichia coli. Most strains of Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeurginosa are more resistant to this compound. Nitrofurantoin is activated by bacterial flavoproteins (nitrofuran reductase) to actively reduce reactive intermediates that modulate and damage ribosomal proteins or other macromolecules, such as DNA. This inhibits DNA, RNA, protein, and cell wall synthesis which causes cell death. Nitrofurantoin has a low resistance potential that is rapidly metabolized by mammals and is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is also a pro-oxidant that is cytotoxic due to the generation of intracellular H 2O2. It is an inhibitor of glutathione reductase. Nitrofurantoin produces hepatotoxicity caused by the redox cycling of the nitro group and its radical anion which leads to oxidative stress.

Other Notes

Keep container tightly closed in a dry and well-ventilated place.Light sensitive.

Pictograms

Exclamation markHealth hazard

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 4 Oral - Resp. Sens. 1 - Skin Sens. 1

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids

WGK

WGK 1

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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