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TC28a2 Human Chondrocyte Cell Line

TC28a2 Human Chondrocyte Cell Line is widely used as a model cell line for studying normal and pathological cartilage repair mechanisms related to chondrocyte biology and physiology.


Quality Level

biological source



cell culture | mammalian: suitable

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General description

The chondrocyte is the only specialized cell type present in articular cartilage. They produce secretions to support and repair the cartilage matrix. Human chondrocytes in mature articular cartilage are post-mitotic and terminally differentiated cells. Studies on human chondrocytes have been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining sufficient numbers of primary human chondrocytes from a single joint and by variabilities among donors due to factors such as age and medical conditions.

T/C-28a2 cell line was established by transfecting primary cultures (day 5) of costal cartilage from a 15-year-old female with a retroviral vector expressing simian virus SV40 large T antigen.

1. Goldring, M.B, Birkhead, J.R., Suen, L.F., Yamin, R., Mizuno, S., Glowacki, J., Arbiser, J.L, Apperley, J.F. (1994) Interleukin-1 beta-modulated gene expression in immortalized human chondrocytes. J. Clin. Invest 94(6): 2307-2316.
2. Claassen, H., Schicht, M., Brandt, J., Reuse, K., Schadlich, R., Goldring, M.B., Guddat, S.S., Thate, A., Paulsen, F. C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2 chondrocytes as well as human primary articular chondrocytes express hormone and insulin receptors- Useful cells in study of cartilage metabolism Ann Anat. 193(1): 23-29.
3. Goldring, M.B. (2004) Culture of immortalized chondrocytes and their use as models of chondrocyte function. Methods Mol. Med. 100: 37-52.

Cell Line Description

Chondrocyte Cells


This product is intended for sale and sold solely to academic institutions for internal academic research use per the terms of the “Academic Use Agreement” as detailed in the product documentation. For information regarding any other use, please contact


• Each vial contains ≥ 1X106 viable cells.
• Cells are tested by PCR and are negative for HPV-16, HPV-18, Hepatitis A, B, C and HIV-1 & 2 viruses.
• Cells are negative for mycoplasma contamination.
• Each lot of cells are genotyped by STR analysis to verify the unique identity of the cell line.

Storage and Stability

Store in liquid nitrogen. The cells can be cultured for at least 10 passages after initial thawing without significantly affecting the cell marker expression and functionality.

Other Notes

Concentration: Please refer to lot specific datasheet.

Storage Class Code

6.2 - Infectious substances



Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Mary B Goldring
Methods in molecular medicine, 100, 37-52 (2004-07-29)
Immortalization of chondrocytes increases life span and proliferative capacity but does not necessarily stabilize the differentiated phenotype. Expansion of chondrocyte cell lines in continuous monolayer culture may result in the loss of phenotype, particularly if high cell density is not...

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