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Formic acid

puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥98%

Linear Formula:
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level


ACS reagent
puriss. p.a.


reag. Ph. Eur.

vapor density

1.6 (vs air)

vapor pressure

44.8 mmHg ( 20 °C)





autoignition temp.

1004 °F

expl. lim.

57 %


mass spectrometry (MS): suitable


≤0.001% ammonium (NH4)
≤0.001% non-volatile matter
≤0.005% acetic acid (CH3COOH)

refractive index

n20/D 1.370 (lit.)


2.2 (20 °C, 2.2  g/L)


100-101 °C (lit.)


8.2-8.4 °C (lit.)


1.22 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)

anion traces

chloride (Cl-): ≤5 mg/kg
oxalate (C2O42-): ≤50 mg/kg
sulfate (SO42-): ≤5 mg/kg
sulfite (SO32-): ≤10 mg/kg

cation traces

Ag: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Al: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Ba: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Be: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Bi: ≤0.1 mg/kg
Ca: ≤0.2 mg/kg
Cd: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Co: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Cr: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Cu: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Fe: ≤2 mg/kg
Ge: ≤0.05 mg/kg
K: ≤0.1 mg/kg
Li: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Mg: ≤0.5 mg/kg
Mn: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Mo: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Na: ≤0.5 mg/kg
Ni: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Pb: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Sr: ≤0.02 mg/kg
Ti: ≤0.1 mg/kg
Tl: ≤0.05 mg/kg
V: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Zn: ≤0.05 mg/kg
Zr: ≤0.1 mg/kg

SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

Formic acid is a simple organic acid. Formate group (-COOH) plays an important role to compose the complex biomolecules (acetic acid, glycine, various amino acids). It exhibits high polarity and its dipole moment is 1.41Debye. It has been reported as a substiute for fuel in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Its permeation through Nafion 112 and 117 membranes has been compared with that of methanol.


Formic acid has been used to evaluate its first absolute differential elastic electron scattering cross-sections and angular differential cross-sections (incident electron energies in the range of 1.8 and 50eV). It may be used in the preparation of HPLC buffer for mass spectrometric studies.

Other Notes

The article number 33015-4X2.5L will be discontinued. Please order the single bottle 33015-2.5L which is physically identical with the same exact specifications.
The article number 33015-4X2.5L-M will be discontinued. Please order the single bottle 33015-2.5L-M which is physically identical with the same exact specifications.
The article number 33015-6X1L-M will be discontinued. Please order the single bottle 33015-1L-M which is physically identical with the same exact specifications.

Legal Information

Nafion is a trademark of The Chemours Company FC, LLC

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 3 Inhalation - Acute Tox. 4 Oral - Eye Dam. 1 - Flam. Liq. 3 - Skin Corr. 1A

Supplementary Hazards

Storage Class Code

3 - Flammable liquids



Flash Point(F)

121.1 °F - closed cup

Flash Point(C)

49.5 °C - closed cup

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Heng Lu et al.
Cell communication insights, 5, 1-7 (2014-05-20)
Protein-protein interactions play a pivotal role in both inter- and intra-cellular signaling. Identification of signaling protein complexes can thus shed important new insights into cell communications. We developed a parallel affinity precipitation protocol to overcome the disadvantages of the tandem
Crossover of formic acid through Nafion membranes.
Rhee Y-W, et al.
Journal of Power Sources, 117(1), 35-38 (2003)
Elastic electron scattering from formic acid (HCOOH): absolute differential cross-sections.
Vizcaino V, et al.
New Journal of Physics, 8(6), 85-85 (2006)
Yoann Rombouts et al.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 74(1), 234-241 (2013-10-10)
To determine whether anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) exhibit specific changes in Fc glycosylation prior to the onset of arthritis. Serum samples of patients with ACPA-positive arthralgia (n=183) were collected at baseline and at various time points of follow-up. 105 patients
J Liesivuori et al.
Pharmacology & toxicology, 69(3), 157-163 (1991-09-01)
Metabolism of methanol, methyl ethers, esters and amides give rise to formic acid. This acid is an inhibitor of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase causing histotoxic hypoxia. Formic acid is a weaker inhibitor than cyanide and hydrosulphide anions. The body burden

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