Primary, Human Diploid, and Continuous Culture Cell Lines for Virus Isolation and Proliferation and Virus-based Vaccines
The advent of cell culture techniques has fundamentally changed virus isolation and proliferation in the lab setting. Cell-based production systems offer a convenient and cost-effective approach for the isolation, detection, and identification of viruses. Greater process control contributes to a more reliable and well-characterized product, with faster and shorter production cycles than that of animal- and egg-based production systems.
Cell-based production systems for virus culture and vaccine production are important for:
- Virus detection/identification: Cell cultures provide a suitable environment for detection and identification of many human viral pathogens, affording important microscopic examinations for evidence of viral proliferation. Accurate identification of virus is important to ensure timely and appropriate treatments, and can facilitate the detection of mixed viral infections.
- Host-pathogen interaction research: Innovations in cell biology have allowed deeper and more complex insights into host-pathogen interactions for the study of pathogenesis. In vitro cell culture systems can facilitate experimental access for investigation of the mode and etiological factors of viral infection.
- Viral structure and replication: Genetic material and replication methods vary considerably among different types of viruses. Cell culture systems can facilitate virus growth and elucidate development and interactions with host cells at every stage of replication.
- Vaccine production: Cell-based vaccine production systems offer a flexible and cost-effective approach for meeting vaccine output needs. Manufacturers can supply vaccines more quickly and in greater quantities to alleviate vaccine supply shortages during outbreaks when traditional egg-based production systems may fall short. Virus-based vaccines produced in mammalian cells may also offer better protection against viral infections, as they more closely replicate viruses in circulation than vaccines produced in chicken eggs.
Cell culture systems used for virus propagation may employ primary cells, semi-continuous cell lines, and continuous cell lines: