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Endothelial cells suppress monocyte activation through secretion of extracellular vesicles containing antiinflammatory microRNAs.

Blood (2015-04-04)
Makon-Sébastien Njock, Henry S Cheng, Lan T Dang, Maliheh Nazari-Jahantigh, Andrew C Lau, Emilie Boudreau, Mark Roufaiel, Myron I Cybulsky, Andreas Schober, Jason E Fish
ABSTRACT

The blood contains high concentrations of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), and their levels and contents are altered in several disease states, including cardiovascular disease. However, the function of circulating EVs, especially the microRNAs (miRNAs) that they contain, are poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect of secreted vesicles produced by quiescent endothelial cells (ECs) on monocyte inflammatory responses and to assess whether transfer of microRNAs occurs between these cells. We observed that monocytic cells cocultured (but not in contact) with ECs were refractory to inflammatory activation. Further characterization revealed that endothelium-derived EVs (EC-EVs) suppressed monocyte activation by enhancing immunomodulatory responses and diminishing proinflammatory responses. EVs isolated from mouse plasma also suppressed monocyte activation. Importantly, injection of EC-EVs in vivo repressed monocyte/macrophage activation, confirming our in vitro findings. We found that several antiinflammatory microRNAs were elevated in EC-EV-treated monocytes. In particular, miR-10a was transferred to monocytic cells from EC-EVs and could repress inflammatory signaling through the targeting of several components of the NF-κB pathway, including IRAK4. Our findings reveal that ECs secrete EVs that can modulate monocyte activation and suggest that altered EV secretion and/or microRNA content may affect vascular inflammation in the setting of cardiovascular disease.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
DL-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate solution, 45-55 mg/mL in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Bicinchoninic acid disodium salt hydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-IRAK-4 antibody produced in rabbit, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution