The involvement of cyclin G2 (CCNG2) and cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (CDK4), cell cycle regulatory proteins, in adipose tissue metabolism and insulin resistance is still unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze CCNG2 and CDK4 levels in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from nonobese and morbidly obese patients and their relationship with insulin resistance. We studied the mRNA and protein levels of CCNG2 and CDK4 in VAT and SAT from 12 nonobese and 23 morbidly obese patients (11 with low [MO-L-IR] and 12 with high insulin resistance [MO-H-IR]). The nonobese patients had a significantly greater CCNG2 expression in VAT (P = .004) and SAT (P<.001) than the MO-L-IR and MO-H-IR patients. The MO-H-IR patients had a significantly lower CDK4 expression in VAT than the MO-L-IR (P = .026), but similar to the nonobese patients. CDK4 and CCNG2 expression correlated significantly in VAT (r = 0.511, P<.001) and SAT (r = .535, P = .001). In different multiple regression analysis models, CCNG2 and CDK4 expression in VAT was mainly predicted by glucose (P = .047 and P = .008, respectively), and CCNG2 expression in SAT was mainly predicted by body mass index (P = .041). No significant associations were found with CDK4 expression in SAT. Moreover, VAT CCNG2 expression was the main determinant of the improvement in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index at 3 months after bariatric surgery (B = -271.7, P = .026). Our data show for the first time that the human CCNG2 and CDK4 expression of VAT are inversely associated with glucose and insulin resistance.