Synthesis and mechanistic study of palladium nanobars and nanorods.

Journal of the American Chemical Society (2007-03-06)
Yujie Xiong, Honggang Cai, Benjamin J Wiley, Jinguo Wang, Moon J Kim, Younan Xia

This paper describes a simple and versatile method for growing highly anisotropic nanostructures of Pd, single-crystal nanobars bounded by {100} facets and single-crystal nanorods with their side surfaces enclosed by {100} and {110} facets. According to thermodynamic arguments, Pd atoms should nucleate and grow in a solution phase to form cuboctahedrons of spherical shape with their surfaces bounded by a mix of {111} and {100} facets. Anisotropic nanostructures can only form under kinetically controlled conditions, while the cubic symmetry is broken. In the present system, we found that one-dimensional growth could be induced and maintained through an interplay of the following processes: (i) speedy reduction of the precursor to ensure prompt addition of atoms to the seed; (ii) chemisorption of bromide on the seed to promote the formation of {100} and {110} facets; and (iii) localized oxidative etching on one specific face of the seed to initiate preferential growth on this face. Experimentally, the anisotropic growth can be achieved by varying the type and concentration of reducing agent, as well as by adjusting the reaction temperature. This methodology developed for Pd has also been extended to both Au and Pt. As expected for a kinetically controlled product, the anisotropic nanostructure evolved into the thermodynamically favored shape during an aging process.

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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, average Mw ~29,000
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, average Mw ~55,000
Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average Mw ~1,300,000 by LS