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Regulation of sodium and calcium in Daphnia magna exposed to silver nanoparticles.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry (2013-01-25)
Chun-Mei Zhao, Wen-Xiong Wang
ABSTRACT

The toxicity of manufactured silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been widely studied, but the influence of AgNPs on the major ions (such as sodium [Na] and calcium [Ca]) regulations are unknown. In the present study, a freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna was exposed to commercial AgNPs coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone. After 48 h, the Na body content was significantly reduced by AgNO3 exposure, but the Ca body content was significantly increased under AgNO3 and AgNP exposures, respectively. No effect was observed on the body concentrations of Na and Ca at 50 to 500 µg/L AgNPs with 1-µM cysteine addition. Exposure of AgNO3 and AgNPs inhibited the Na influx and elevated the Na efflux. In contrast, their exposure increased the Ca influx, but did not affect the Ca efflux. The results of the present study demonstrated the significant influences of AgNO3 and AgNPs (without cysteine) on Na and Ca regulations. Such effect of AgNPs on Na and Ca regulation disappeared after cysteine addition, indicating that the soluble Ag released from AgNPs played a major role in the ionoregulatory dysfunction.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Povidone, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Povidone, meets USP testing specifications
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Kollidon® 25
Povidone, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, K 25, tested according to Ph. Eur.
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, BioXtra, suitable for mouse embryo cell culture
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average mol wt 10,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average mol wt 40,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, suitable for plant cell culture, average mol wt 10,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, for molecular biology, nucleic acid hybridization tested, mol wt 360,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, mol wt (number average molecular weight Mn 360)
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, average Mw ~55,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, powder, average Mw ~29,000
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, average Mw ~1,300,000 by LS
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, K 90
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone solution, K 60, 45% in H2O
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Polyvinylpyrrolidone, K 30