Shadoo belongs to the prion protein family, an evolutionary conserved and extensively studied family due to the implication of PrP in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. However, the biological function of these genes remains poorly understood. While Sprn-knockdown experiments suggested an involvement of Shadoo during mouse embryonic development, Sprn-knockout experiments in 129Pas/C57BL/6J or 129Pas/FVB/NCr mice did not confirm it. In the present study, we analyzed the impact of Sprn gene invalidation in a pure FVB/NJ genetic background, using a zinc finger nuclease approach. The in-depth analysis of the derived knockout transgenic mice revealed a significant increase in embryonic lethality at early post-implantation stages, a growth retardation of young Sprn-knockout pups fed by wild type mice and a lactation defect of Sprn-knockout females. Histological and transcriptional analyses of knockout E7.5 embryos, E14.5 placentas and G7.5 mammary glands revealed specific roles of the Shadoo protein in mouse early embryogenesis, tissue development and differentiation with a potential antagonist action between PrP and Shadoo. This study thus highlights the entanglement between the proteins of the prion family.