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The relationship between estrogen-induced phenotypic transformation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

Annals of translational medicine (2020-07-11)
Xiaohui Xia, Changlong Zhou, Xuenong He, Chang Liu, Guanyu Wang, Xiaochuan Sun
ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of estrogen on human cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and to clarify the molecular mechanism of estrogen inhibition of VSMC proliferation, which could provide an important reference basis for the clinical treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Firstly, the effects of different concentrations of estradiol and estrogen receptor (ESR) blocker (tamoxifen) on the proliferation of human VSMCs and the expression of estrogen-related receptor gene (ESR: ESR1, ESR2, GPER), myocardin (MYOCD), serum reaction factor (SRF), and apoptosis gene caspase-3 were measured to discover the effect and mechanism of tamoxifen on the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs. Secondly, the effects of estradiol on human VSMCs treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) were observed by measuring the expression of vascular smooth muscle markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), SM22α, FLN, MCP-1, and TLR4. Estradiol inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs by upregulating the expression of ESR1, ESR2, and GPER and downregulating the expression of caspase-3, MYOCD, and SRF, thereby inhibiting the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle. At the same time, tamoxifen had opposite effects. Angiotensin II decreased the expression of α-SMA and SM22α and promoted the expression of FLN, MCP-1, and TLR4 protein, while estrogen had the opposite effects. Estrogen suppresses apoptosis by inhibiting the proliferation of human VSMCs and preventing it from changing from contractile to synthetic. Estrogen can further prevents vascular damage and regulate peripheral inflammatory reaction, thereby producing a protective effect on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
(Tyr[SO3H]27)Cholecystokinin fragment 26-33 Amide, ≥97% (HPLC), powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-β-Catenin Antibody, Upstate®, from rabbit
Estradiol hemihydrate, British Pharmacopoeia (BP) Assay Standard