Glioblastoma (GB) is the most aggressive and common form of primary brain tumor, characterized by fast proliferation, high invasion, and resistance to current standard treatment. The average survival rate post-diagnosis is only of 14.6 months, despite the aggressive standard post-surgery treatment approaches of radiotherapy concomitant with chemotherapy with temozolomide. Altered cell metabolism has been identified as an emerging cancer hallmark, including in GB, thus offering a new target for cancer therapies. On the other hand, abnormal expression levels of miRNAs, key regulators of multiple molecular pathways, have been correlated with pathological manifestations of cancer, such as chemoresistance, proliferation, and resistance to apoptosis. In this work, we hypothesized that gene therapy based on modulation of a miRNA with aberrant expression in GB and predicted to target crucial metabolic enzymes might impair tumor cell metabolism. We found that the increase of miR-144 levels, shown to be downregulated in U87 and DBTRG human GB cell lines, as well as in GB tumor samples, promoted the downregulation of mRNA of enzymes involved in bioenergetic pathways, with consequent alterations in cell metabolism, impairment of migratory capacity, and sensitization of DBTRG cells to a chemotherapeutic drug, the dichloroacetate (DCA). Taken together, our findings provide evidence that the miR-144 plus DCA combined therapy holds promise to overcome GB-acquired chemoresistance, therefore deserving to be explored toward its potential application as a complementary therapeutic approach to the current treatment options for this type of brain tumor.