Peritoneal adhesion occurs in a majority of patients following abdominal surgery and can result in significant side effects and complications. Current strategies to minimize adhesions involve the use of nontargeted anatomical barriers that are either inefficient in protecting injured areas or lacking the adequate residence time to prevent adhesions. Herein, the development of a biologically targeted photo-crosslinkable nanopatch (pCNP) is reported that can prevent postsurgical adhesion. It is demonstrated that pCNP can form a compact protective barrier over surfaces with exposed collagen IV. Using a rat parietal peritoneal excision adhesion model, it is showed that pCNP is highly effective and safe in preventing postsurgical adhesions. This work presents a novel approach to preventing peritoneal adhesion with nanomaterials.