A robust human norovirus replication model in zebrafish larvae.

PLoS pathogens (2019-09-20)
Jana Van Dycke, Annelii Ny, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Jan Maes, Myra Hosmillo, Arno Cuvry, Ian Goodfellow, Tatiane C Nogueira, Erik Verbeken, Jelle Matthijnssens, Peter de Witte, Johan Neyts, Joana Rocha-Pereira

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne illness, with a societal cost of $60 billion and 219,000 deaths/year. The lack of robust small animal models has significantly hindered the understanding of norovirus biology and the development of effective therapeutics. Here we report that HuNoV GI and GII replicate to high titers in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae; replication peaks at day 2 post infection and is detectable for at least 6 days. The virus (HuNoV GII.4) could be passaged from larva to larva two consecutive times. HuNoV is detected in cells of the hematopoietic lineage and the intestine, supporting the notion of a dual tropism. Antiviral treatment reduces HuNoV replication by >2 log10, showing that this model is suited for antiviral studies. Zebrafish larvae constitute a simple and robust replication model that will largely facilitate studies of HuNoV biology and the development of antiviral strategies.

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Complete Whole Transcriptome Amplification Kit, DNA polymerase included, Complete Kit with optimized enzyme to amplify total RNA in <4 hours, no 3′ bias