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Mechanochemical Synthesis and Isomerization of N-Substituted Indole-3-carboxaldehyde Oximes †.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) (2019-09-22)
Matej Baláž, Zuzana Kudličková, Mária Vilková, Ján Imrich, Ľudmila Balážová, Nina Daneu
ABSTRACT

Performing solution-phase oximation reactions with hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl) carries significant risk, especially in aqueous solutions. In the present study, four N-substituted indole-3-carboxaldehyde oximes were prepared from the corresponding aldehydes by solvent-free reaction with NH2OH·HCl and a base (NaOH or Na2CO3) using a mechanochemical approach, thus minimizing the possible risk. In all cases, the conversion to oximes was almost complete. The focus of this work is on 1-methoxyindole-3-carboxaldehyde oxime, a key intermediate in the production of indole phytoalexins with useful antimicrobial properties. Under optimized conditions, it was possible to reach almost 95% yield after 20 min of milling. Moreover, for the products containing electron-donating substituents (-CH3, -OCH3), the isomerization from the oxime anti to syn isomer under acidic conditions was discovered. For the 1-methoxy analog, the acidic isomerization of pure isomers in solution resulted in the formation of anti isomer, whereas the prevalence of syn isomer was observed in solid state. From NMR data the syn and anti structures of produced oximes were elucidated. This work shows an interesting and possibly scalable alternative to classical synthesis and underlines environmentally friendly and sustainable character of mechanochemistry.

MATERIALS
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Sigma-Aldrich
Indoline, ReagentPlus®, 99%