The production of a bacteriocin-like substance with antimicrobial activity, named peocin, by the probiotic Paenibacillus ehimensis NPUST1 was previously reported by our laboratory. The present study aimed to identify peocin and increase the peocin yield by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Peocin was identified as a DNA starvation/stationary phase protection protein, also called DNA-binding protein from starved cells (Dps), by gel overlay and LC-MS/MS analysis. For mass production of peocin, fed-batch cultivation of E. coli was performed using a pH-stat control system. Purification by simple nickel affinity chromatography and dialysis yielded 45.3 mg of purified peocin from a 20-mL fed-batch culture (49.3% recovery). The biological activity of the purified peocin was confirmed by determination of the MIC and MBC against diverse pathogens. Purified peocin exhibited antimicrobial activity against aquatic, food spoilage, clinical and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In an in vivo challenge test, zebrafish treated with purified peocin exhibited significantly increased survival rates after A. hydrophila challenge. The present study is the first to show the antimicrobial activity of Dps and provides an efficient strategy for production of bioactive peocin, which will aid the development of peocin as a novel antimicrobial agent with potential applications in diverse industries.