Radiosynovectomy is a technique used to decrease inflammation of the synovial tissue by intraarticular injection of a β-emitting radionuclide, such as 177Lu, which is suitable for radiotherapy due to its decay characteristics. Drug-encapsulating nanoparticles based on poly lactic‑co‑glycolic acid (PLGA) polymer are a suitable option to treat several arthritic diseases, used as anti-inflammatory drugs transporters of such as methotrexate (MTX), which has been widely used in the arthritis treatment (RA), and hyaluronic acid (HA), which specifically binds the CD44 and hyaluronan receptors overexpressed on the inflamed synovial tissue cells. The 1,4,7,10‑Tetraazacyclododecane‑1,4,7,10‑tetraacetic acid (DOTA) was used as complexing agent of Lutetium-177 for radiotherapy porpoises. The aim of this research was to synthesize 177Lu-DOTA-HA-PLGA(MTX) as a novel, smart drug delivery system with target-specific recognition, potentially useful in radiosynovectomy for local treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The polymeric nanoparticle system was prepared and chemically characterized. The MTX encapsulation and radiolabelling were performed with suitable characteristics for its in vitro evaluation. The HA-PLGA(MTX) nanoparticle mean diameter was 167.6 nm ± 57.4 with a monomodal and narrow distribution. Spectroscopic techniques demonstrated the effective conjugation of HA and chelating agent DOTA to the polymeric nanosystem. The MTX encapsulation was 95.2% and the loading efficiency was 6%. The radiochemical purity was 96 ± 2%, determined by ITLC. Conclusion: 177Lu-DOTA-HA-PLGA(MTX) was prepared as a biocompatible polymeric PLGA nanoparticle conjugated to HA for specific targeting. The therapeutic nanosystem is based on bi-modal mechanisms using MTX as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) and 177Lu as a radiotherapeutic component. The 177Lu-DOTA-HA-PLGA(MTX) nanoparticles showed properties suitable for radiosynovectomy and further specific targeted anti-rheumatic therapy.