Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related disorder that is strongly associated with chondrocyte senescence. The causal link between disruptive PTEN/Akt signaling and chondrocyte senescence and the underlying mechanism are unclear. In this study, we found activated Akt signaling in human OA cartilage as well as in a mouse OA model with surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus. Genetic mouse models mimicking sustained Akt signaling in articular chondrocytes via PTEN deficiency driven by either Col2a1-Cre or Col2a1-Cre ERT2 developed OA, whereas restriction of Akt signaling reversed the OA phenotypes in PTEN-deficient mice. Mechanistically, prolonged activation of Akt signaling caused an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and triggered chondrocyte senescence as well as a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, whereas chronic administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed chondrocyte senescence and mitigated OA progression in PTEN-deficient mice. Therefore, inhibition of Akt signaling by PTEN is required for the maintenance of articular cartilage. Disrupted Akt signaling in articular chondrocytes triggers oxidative stress-induced chondrocyte senescence and causes OA.