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Trace elements in wild edible Aplysia species: Relationship with the desaturation-elongation indexes of fatty acids.

Chemosphere (2018-06-13)
Renato B Pereira, Agostinho A Almeida, David M Pereira, Olga Silva, Paula B Andrade, Edgar Pinto, Patrícia Valentão
ABSTRACT

The profile of essential and non-essential elements was traced in the edible sea hares Aplysia depilans Gmelin, Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier. Manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) were identified as the major essential elements. Risk assessment evidenced that the levels of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) did not exceed the maximum limit value established by the European Regulation, the contents of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) being also below the levels established by the FDA guide. A correlation between trace elements levels and desaturation-elongation indexes of fatty acids was found. While Cd, Se and molybdenum (Mo) seem to promote the desaturation-elongation process involved on the production of C20:4n-6c, Ni, Cr and Fe may potentiate the conversion of C18:3n-3c to C20:5n-3c. Furthermore, cobalt (Co), Ni and Cu appear to decrease Δ9 desaturation index. Besides the suggested biosynthetic switch modulated by trace elements, the nutritional value of the species is further strengthened.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Supelco 37 Component FAME Mix, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, in dichloromethane (varied conc.), ampule of 1 mL
Sigma-Aldrich
Lignoceric acid, ≥99% (GC)
Supelco
Heneicosanoic acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Tricosanoic acid, ≥99% (capillary GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
cis-11,14-Eicosadienoic acid, ≥98%, liquid
Sigma-Aldrich
cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid, ≥99%