Photoresponsive transistor memories that can be erased using light-only bias are of significant interest owing to their convenient elimination of stored data for information delivery. Herein, we suggest a strategy to improve light-erasable organic transistor memories, which enables fast "photoinduced recovery" under low-intensity light. CdSe quantum dots (QDs) whose surfaces are covered with three different organic molecules are introduced as photoactive floating-gate interlayers in organic transistor memories. We determine that CdSe QDs capped or surface-modified with small molecular ligands lead to efficient hole diffusion from the QDs to the conducting channel during "photoinduced recovery", resulting in faster erasing times. In particular, the memories with QDs surface-modified with fluorinated molecules function as normally-ON type transistor memories with nondestructive operation. These memories exhibit high memory ratios over 105 between OFF and ON bistable current states for over 10 000 s and good dynamic switching behavior with voltage-driven programming processes and light-assisted erasing processes within 1 s. Our study provides a useful guideline for designing photoactive floating-gate materials to achieve desirable properties of light-erasable organic transistor memories.