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Cdc25A Is a Critical Mediator of Ischemic Neuronal Death In Vitro and In Vivo.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2017-06-14)
Grace O Iyirhiaro, Doo Soon Im, Wassamon Boonying, Steve M Callaghan, Matthew J During, Ruth S Slack, David S Park

Dysregulation of cell cycle machinery is implicated in a number of neuronal death contexts, including stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are inappropriately activated in mature neurons under ischemic stress conditions. We previously demonstrated a functional role for the cyclin D1/Cdk4/pRb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) pathway in delayed neuronal death induced by ischemia. However, the molecular signals leading to cyclin D/Cdk4/pRb activation following ischemic insult are presently not clear. Here, we investigate the cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) dual-specificity phosphatases as potential upstream regulators of ischemic neuronal death and Cdk4 activation. We show that a pharmacologic inhibitor of Cdc25 family members (A, B, and C) protects mouse primary neurons from hypoxia-induced delayed death. The major contributor to the death process appears to be Cdc25A. shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cdc25A protects neurons in a delayed model of hypoxia-induced death in vitro Similar results were observed in vivo following global ischemia in the rat. In contrast, neurons singly or doubly deficient for Cdc25B/C were not significantly protective. We show that Cdc25A activity, but not level, is upregulated in vitro following hypoxia and global ischemic insult in vivo Finally, we show that shRNA targeting Cdc25A blocks Ser795 pRb phosphorylation. Overall, our results indicate a role for Cdc25A in delayed neuronal death mediated by ischemia.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A major challenge in stroke is finding an effective neuroprotective strategy to treat cerebral ischemic injury. Cdc25 family member A (Cdc25A) is a phosphatase normally activated during cell division in proliferating cells. We found that Cdc25A is activated in neurons undergoing ischemic stress mediated by hypoxia in vitro and global cerebral ischemia in rats in vivo We show that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of Cdc25A activity protects neurons from delayed death in vitro and in vivo Downregulation of Cdc25A led to reduction in retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) phosphorylation. An increase in pRb phosphorylation has been previously linked to ischemic neuronal death. Our results identify Cdc25A as a potential target for neuroprotectant strategy for the treatment of delayed ischemic neuronal death.

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