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In situ analysis of Bacillus licheniformis biofilms: amyloid-like polymers and eDNA are involved in the adherence and aggregation of the extracellular matrix.

Journal of applied microbiology (2017-02-19)
I Randrianjatovo-Gbalou, P Rouquette, D Lefebvre, E Girbal-Neuhauser, C-E Marcato-Romain
ABSTRACT

This study attempts to determine which of the exopolymeric substances are involved in the adherence and aggregation of a Bacillus licheniformis biofilm. The involvement of extracellular proteins and eDNA were particularly investigated using DNase and proteinase K treatment. The permeability of the biofilms increased fivefold after DNase I treatment. The quantification of the matrix components showed that, irrespective to the enzyme tested, eDNA and amyloid-like polymers were removed simultaneously. Size-exclusion chromatography analyses supported these observations and revealed the presence of associated nucleic acid and protein complexes in the biofilm lysates. These data suggest that some extracellular DNA and amyloid-like proteins were closely interlaced within the matrix. Finally, confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging gave supplementary clues about the 3D organization of the biofilms, confirming that eDNA and exoproteins were essentially layered under and around the bacterial cells, whereas the amyloid-like fractions were homogeneously distributed within the matrix. These results confirm that some DNA-amyloid complexes play a key role in the modulation of the mechanical resistance of B. licheniformis biofilms. The study highlights the need to consider the whole structure of biofilms and to target the interactions between matrix components. A better understanding of B. licheniformis biofilm physiology and the structural organization of the matrix will strengthen strategies of biofilm control.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

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Mowiol® 4-88, Mw ~31,000
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Dextran from Leuconostoc spp., Mr ~40,000
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κ-Casein from bovine milk, ≥70% (PAGE), lyophilized powder
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Thioflavin T, used as stain for amyloid
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Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) Kit