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Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Disrupt mTOR-Signaling and Aerobic Glycolysis During T-Cell Activation.

Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) (2015-10-21)
Martin Böttcher, Andreas D Hofmann, Heiko Bruns, Martina Haibach, Romy Loschinski, Domenica Saul, Andreas Mackensen, Katarina Le Blanc, Regina Jitschin, Dimitrios Mougiakakos

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess numerous regenerative and immune modulating functions. Transplantation across histocompatibility barriers is feasible due to their hypo-immunogenicity. MSCs have emerged as promising tools for treating graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is well established that their clinical efficacy is substantially attributed to fine-tuning of T-cell responses. At the same time, increasing evidence suggests that metabolic processes control T-cell function and fate. Here, we investigated the MSCs' impact on the metabolic framework of activated T-cells. In fact, MSCs led to mitigated mTOR signaling. This phenomenon was accompanied by a weaker glycolytic response (including glucose uptake, glycolytic rate, and upregulation of glycolytic machinery) toward T-cell activating stimuli. Notably, MSCs express indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which mediates T-cell suppressive tryptophan catabolism. Our observations suggest that IDO-induced tryptophan depletion interferes with a tryptophan-sufficiency signal that promotes cellular mTOR activation. Despite an immediate suppression of T-cell responses, MSCs foster a metabolically quiescent T-cell phenotype characterized by reduced mTOR signaling and glycolysis, increased autophagy, and lower oxidative stress levels. In fact, those features have previously been shown to promote generation of long-lived memory cells and it remains to be elucidated how MSC-induced metabolic effects shape in vivo T-cell immunity.

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Product Description

1-Methyl-DL-tryptophan, 97%