Detection technologies employing optically encoded particles have gained much interest toward clinical diagnostics and drug discovery, but the portfolio of available systems is still limited. The fabrication and characterization of highly stable surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS)-encoded colloids for the identification and imaging of proteins expressed in cells are reported. These plasmonic nanostructures are made of gold octahedra coated with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels and can be readily encoded with Raman active dyes while retaining high colloidal stability in biofluids. A layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte coating is used to seal the outer surface of the encoded particles and to provide a reactive surface for covalent conjugation with antibodies. The targeted multiplexing capabilities of the SERRS tags are demonstrated by the simultaneous detection and imaging of three tumor-associated surface biomarkers: epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and homing cell adhesion molecule (CD44) by SERRS spectroscopy. The plasmonic microgels are able to discriminate tumor A431 (EGFR+/EpCAM+/CD44+) and nontumor 3T3 2.2 (EGFR-/EpCAM-/CD44+) cells while cocultured in vitro.