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Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity of a new generation of nanoparticle-based consolidants for restoration and contribution to the safe-by-design implementation.

Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA (2015-07-07)
Erik Tedesco, Ivan Mičetić, Silvia Gabriella Ciappellano, Christian Micheletti, Marco Venturini, Federico Benetti
ABSTRACT

Works of art are constantly under physical, chemical and biological degradation, so constant restoration is required. Consolidation is an important step in restoration, and traditional approaches and materials have already shown their limitations. To solve these problems, new nanoparticle-based consolidants were developed. No information on their toxicity is yet available. In this work, we focused our attention on potential risks posed by three commercially available nanoparticle-based consolidants: silica (SiO2 NPs), silanized silica (silanized SiO2 NPs) and calcium hydroxide (nanolime) nanoparticle dispersions. Occupational exposure impact was tested on three in vitro models mimicking inhalation, dermal contact and systemic routes. While no toxic effects were observed for nanolime and silanized SiO2 NPs, bare SiO2 NPs showed a dose- and time-dependent damage in all considered models. Corrosion test on EpiSkin® revealed no viability reduction. Works of art degradation is partially due to microorganism activity. Consolidant antibacterial activity was evaluated on three representative bacterial strains. Silica NPs-based consolidants showed effect on specific bacterial groups, while no specificity was observed with nanolime. In conclusion, silanized SiO2 NPs-based consolidant emerged as the safest and bacteriologically active product. The different biological impact of bare and silanized SiO2 NPs highlights the importance of safe-by-design approach in developing nanoparticle-containing products.

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