Evaluation of the new lead-free optically transparent nanocomposites is provided in this paper along with the introduction to their fabrication technologies and the results of investigation of their X-ray attenuating and optical properties before and after their exposure to high doses. These materials might be considered for the construction of X-ray protective screens that are used to protect medical personnel against scattered X rays during close-to patient operations. Rough selection of possible composites was performed according to X-ray attenuation modelling results. Experimental nanocomposites were prepared dissolving tungstates in different solvents or embedding tungsten structures into polymer matrix. It was found that the lead equivalent thickness of fabricated experimental samples varied from 0.15 to 0.75 mmPb and was higher for samples, containing polyanions of phosphotungstic acid. Transparency of the experimental samples to visible light varied from 20 to 60 % and was slightly increasing with irradiation dose due to radiation-induced processes in polymers.