Shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SALF) is an antimicrobial peptide with reported anticancer activities, such as suppression of tumor progression. In this study, we prepared a potential cancer vaccine comprised of SALF in conjunction with the cell lysate of inactivated murine bladder carcinoma cells (MBT-2), and evaluated its efficacy in a mouse tumor model. Our study shows that SALF added to cell culture media inhibits growth progression of MBT-2, and that SALF together with inactivated MBT-2 lysate elevates the level of inflammasome activity, and modulates the levels of IL-1β, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α in mouse macrophages. Immunization of 7, 14, and 21 day-old mice with the vaccine prevented growth of MBT-2 cell-mediated tumors. The vaccine was found to enhance expression of T-cell, cytotoxic T cells, and NK cells in the immunized mice groups. Recruitment of macrophages, T-helper cells, and NK cells was enhanced, but levels of VEGF were decreased in immunized mice. This report provides empirical evidence that our SALF as vaccine adjuvant enhances antitumor immunity in mice.