A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for DBP degradation were pH 7.0, 35 °C, and an agitation rate of 175 rpm. Under these conditions, 500 mg/L of DBP was completely degraded within 30 h. The effects of heavy metals (50 mg/L Cu(2+) and 500 mg/L Pb(2+)) and surfactants (100 mg/L SDS and 500 mg/L Tween 20) on DBP degradation were investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu(2+) and SDS severely inhibited DBP degradation and Pb(2+) weakly inhibited DBP degradation, while Tween 20 greatly enhanced DBP degradation. Furthermore, phthalate degradation genes were found to be located on a plasmid present in Achromobacter sp. W-1.